1. Introduction

1.1 The threat from terrorism and extremism in the United Kingdom can involve the exploitation of vulnerable people, including children, young people and vulnerable adults, to involve them in terrorism or activity in support of terrorism. Possible indicators of vulnerability are shown in appendix 1.

1.2 Since the publication of the government’s Prevent Strategy in 2010, there has been increased awareness of the specific need to safeguard children, young people and families from violent extremism. There have been several occasions, locally and nationally, in which extremist groups have attempted to radicalise vulnerable people to hold extreme views, including views justifying political, religious, sexist or racist violence, or to steer them into a rigid and narrow ideology that is intolerant of diversity and leaves them vulnerable to future radicalisation.

1.3 Results Consortium is committed to providing a secure environment for all our students, staff and stakeholders. We value freedom of speech and the expression of beliefs as fundamental rights underpinning our society’s values. Both students and teachers have the right to speak freely and voice their opinions. However, freedom comes with responsibility and free speech that is designed to manipulate the vulnerable, or that leads to violence and harm of others, goes against the moral principles in which freedom of speech is valued. Free speech is not an unqualified privilege; it is subject to laws and policies governing equality, human rights, community safety and community cohesion. Results Consortium is of the firm belief that exploitation and radicalisation should be viewed as a safeguarding concern.

2. Definitions

2.1 Radicalisation refers to the process by which a person comes to support terrorism and forms of extremism leading to terrorism.

2.2 Extremism is defined by the Government in the Prevent Strategy as:

“Vocal or active opposition to fundamental British values, including democracy, the rule of law, individual liberty and mutual respect and tolerance of different faiths and beliefs. We also include in our definition of extremism calls for the death of members of our armed forces, whether in this country or overseas.”

HM Government (2013)

The specific actions are:

  • Encouraging, justifying or glorifying terrorist violence in furtherance of particular beliefs
  • Seeking to provoke others to commit or support terrorist acts
  • Encouraging serious criminal activity or seeking to provoke others to commit serious criminal acts
  • Fostering hatred which might lead to inter‐community violence in the UK.

2.3 Terrorism is defined under the Terrorism Act 2000 as:

“The use or threat of one or more of the actions listed below to influence the government, or an international governmental organisation, or to intimidate the public. The use or threat must also be for the purpose of advancing a political, religious, racial or ideological cause.”

HM Government (2000)

The specific actions are:

  • serious violence against a person
  • serious damage to property
  • endangering a person’s life (other than that of the person committing the action)
  • creating a serious risk to the health or safety of the public or a section of the public
  • action designed to seriously interfere with or disrupt an electronic system.

3. College Ethos and Practice

3.1 There is no place for extremist views of any kind in our college, whether from internal sources (students, staff or directors) or external sources (community, external agencies, individuals or organisations).

3.2 It is imperative that our students have a safe place where they can discuss and explore controversial issues safely and in an unbiased way and where our staff encourage and facilitate this. As a college, we recognise that extremism and exposure to extremist materials and influences can lead to poor outcomes for our students. We also recognise that if we fail to challenge extremist views, we are failing to protect our students.

3.3 Extremists of all persuasions aim to develop destructive relationships between different communities by promoting division, fear and mistrust of others based on ignorance or prejudice and thereby limiting the life chances of young people. Education is a powerful tool to prevent this, equipping young people with the knowledge, skills and critical thinking to challenge and debate in an informed way. Therefore, at Results Consortium, we provide a broad and balanced curriculum, delivered by skilled professionals, so that our pupils are enriched, understand and become tolerant of difference and diversity, and to ensure that they thrive, feel valued and are not marginalised.

3.4 We are aware that people can be exposed to extremist influences or prejudiced views from an early age, from a variety of sources and media, including via the internet. At times, students may themselves reflect or display views that may be discriminatory, prejudiced or extremist, including using derogatory language. Any prejudice, discrimination or extremist views, including derogatory language, displayed by students, staff and visitors is always challenged and dealt with appropriately.

3.5 Where misconduct by a staff member is proven, the matter will be referred to the National College for Teaching and Leadership for their consideration as to whether a Prohibition Order is warranted.

3.6 As part of wider safeguarding responsibilities, college staff will be alert to:

  • Disclosures by students of their exposure to the extremist actions, views or materials of others outside of college, such as in their homes or community groups, especially where students have not actively sought these out
  • Graffiti symbols, writing or art work promoting extremist messages or images
  • Students accessing extremist material online, including through social networking sites
  • Students voicing opinions drawn from extremist ideologies and narratives
  • Use of extremist or ‘hate’ terms to exclude others or incite violence
  • Intolerance of difference, whether secular or religious or, in line with our equalities policy, views based on, but not exclusive to, gender, disability, homophobia, race, colour or culture
  • Attempts to impose extremist views or practices on others

4. Teaching Approaches

4.1 We strive to eradicate the myths and assumptions that can lead to some people becoming alienated and disempowered, especially where the narrow approaches students may experience elsewhere may make it harder for them to challenge or question these radical influences. In our college this is achieved by good teaching and developing a culture which brings awareness of social norms.

4.2 The college ensures that teaching approaches help our students build resilience to extremism and give them a positive sense of identity through the development of critical thinking skills. We ensure that our staff are equipped to recognise extremism and are skilled and confident enough to challenge it.

4.3 The college promotes British Values:

  • democracy
  • the rule of law
  • individual liberty
  • mutual respect
  • tolerance for those with different or no faiths and beliefs

We teach and encourage students to respect one another and to respect, tolerate  and celebrate difference and diversity.

5. Use of External Agencies and Speakers

5.1 At Results Consortium we encourage the use of external agencies or speakers to enrich the experiences of our students. We screen external agencies, individuals or speakers to ensure that we do not use agencies that are inconsistent with, or are in complete opposition to, the college’s values and ethos. We are aware that the work of external agencies may not directly relate to the rest of the college curriculum so we ensure that this work is of benefit to our students.

5.2 For specific information and guidelines about inviting External Speakers refer to the External Speakers and Events Policy. Speakers can be invited and organised by following the guidelines in that policy.

6. Risk reduction

6.1 The CEO, the Quality Manager and the Designated Safeguarding Lead assess the level of risk within the college and put actions in place to reduce that risk. The college screens staff, visitors and volunteers to ensure they will not deliver messages of extremism or radicalisation.

6.2 Risk assessment may include consideration of:

  • visiting speakers and the use of college premises by external agencies
  • anti‐bullying policy
  • issues specific to the college’s profile, community and philosophy
  • staff, student and board members’ training and knowledge of the prevent duty
  • IT and cyber-security
  • campus or premises security
  • freedom of expression
  • information sharing
  • Student Representatives’ views
  • welfare support

7. Responsibilities

7.1 The identified Prevent Single Point of Contact (SPOC or Designated Safeguarding Lead) is the lead within the organisation for safeguarding in relation to protecting individuals from radicalisation and involvement in terrorism. The responsibilities of the Designated Safeguarding Lead are described in appendix 2.

7.2 The Designated Safeguarding Lead at Results Consortium is the Principal. If the Principal is unavailable, the substitute Designated Safeguarding Lead is the CEO. The Designated Safeguarding Lead will engage, where appropriate, with all external agencies, including the Police, Local Authorities, and Regional Channel Coordinators.

7.3 Staff at Results Consortium are alert to the fact that whilst extremism and
radicalisation is broadly a safeguarding issue there may be some instances where a student may be at direct risk of harm or neglect. For example, this could be due to students displaying risky behaviours in terms of the activities they are involved in or the groups they are associated with or staff may be aware of information about a student’s family that may place them at risk of harm. Therefore, all staff working in Results Consortium (including visiting staff, volunteers, contractors and students on placement) are required to report instances where they believe there is potential risk of harm or neglect, or if they have concerns that a student or a member of staff may be at risk of radicalisation or involvement in terrorism. To that end, all stakeholders need to be alert to potential threats and fully observe the guidelines of this policy and associated documentation to mitigate negative effects and detrimental consequences.

8. Reporting Process

8.1 Prevent concerns can be raised by any staff member or student

8.2 Concerns should be sent to the Designated Safeguarding Lead (The
Principal) by one of these methods:

9. Designated Safeguarding Lead Officer (DSL) response

9.1 On receipt of a Prevent disclosure the Designated Safeguarding Lead Officer is expected to respond in an appropriate and timely manner, making the disclosure a top priority.

9.2 Where a concern is received by the DSL that a child or vulnerable adult is in immediate danger the DSL/DOS should call the police on 999.

9.3 All concerns reported will be considered by the DSL who is expected to investigate where appropriate to reach a decision on whether a referral needs to be made to external agencies and make such referrals as deemed necessary.

9.4 The general approach to external referrals should be as follows, where appropriate:

  • Contacting the Regional Prevent Coordinator
  • Reporting to the local authority’s social care department
  • Reporting to the Local Authority Designated Officer and seeking advice where a Prevent allegation is made against a member of staff
  • Contacting the police where there is concern a crime may have been, or will be, committed.

9.5 If the DSL is in any doubt as to whether a referral should be made to an external agency, advice should be sought from the NSPCC Helpline (0808 800 5000) in the first instance, or with the local authority’s and Regional Prevent Coordinator.

9.6 The DSL provides an annual report to the College’s Governing Body setting out how the College has discharged its duties to students and staff. The DSL ensures monthly reporting to the Senior Management Team with updates on safeguarding related data, reports and policies, as required. The DSL also completes data returns for Office for Students and other external agencies, as required.

9.7 A disciplinary matter or complaint is automatically referred to the DSL where it reveals a potential Prevent concern. The DSL chairs all disciplinary meetings where there is a Prevent concern. Matters that may reveal an underlying Prevent issue include:

  • identity fraud
  • excessive absences
  • complaints about conduct
  • racism, homophobia, Islamophobia, anti-Semitism
  • raising of a grievance

10. Channel Referral

10.1 ‘Channel’ is the safeguarding process which takes a multi-agency case management role in managing the risk of those who have been, or are at harm of becoming, radicalised. Regional Channel Coordinators are responsible for providing support and expert advice to all police forces and local authorities across the region.

10.2 The DSL discusses cases referred as Prevent concerns with the Regional Channel Coordinators and decides in each case whether it is appropriate for Results Consortium to refer the case to Channel or to the police, where appropriate.

10.3 The DSL must report the following to police:

  • online material promoting terrorism or extremism
  • illegal or harmful information, pictures or videos, including articles, images, speeches or videos that promote terrorism or encourage violence
  • websites made by terrorist or extremist organisations
  • videos of terrorist attacks

Appendix 1 – Indicators of vulnerability to radicalisation

1. There is no such thing as a “typical extremist”. Those who become involved in
extremist actions come from a range of backgrounds and experiences, and most individuals, even those who hold radical views, do not become involved in violent extremist activity.

2. Students may become susceptible to radicalisation through a range of social, personal and environmental factors. Violent extremists exploit vulnerabilities in individuals to drive a wedge between them and their families and communities. Staff undergo mandatory training to recognise those vulnerabilities.

3. Indicators of vulnerability include:

  • Identity Crisis – the student is distanced from their cultural / religious heritage and experiences discomfort about their place in society.
  •  Personal Crisis – the student / pupil may be experiencing family tensions, a sense of isolation and low self‐esteem. They may have dissociated from their existing friendship group and become involved with a new and different group
    of friends. They may be searching for answers to questions about identity, faith and belonging.
  • Personal Circumstances – migration, local community tensions and events affecting the student’s country or region of origin may contribute to a sense of grievance that is triggered by personal experience of racism or discrimination or aspects of Government policy.
  • Unmet Aspirations – the student may have perceptions of injustice, a feeling of failure, rejection of civic life.
  • Experiences of Criminality – involvement with criminal groups, imprisonment, and poor resettlement / reintegration.
  • Special Educational Need – students may experience difficulties with social interaction, empathy with others, understanding the consequences of their actions and awareness of the motivations of others.

4. More critical risk factors include:

  • Being in contact with extremist recruiters
  • Accessing violent extremist websites, especially those with social networking elements
  •  Possessing or accessing violent extremist literature
  • Using extremist narratives and a global ideology to explain personal disadvantage
  •  Justifying the use of violence to solve societal issues
  • Joining or seeking to join extremist organisations
  • Significant changes to appearance and / or behaviour
  • Experiencing a high level of social isolation resulting in issues of identity crisis and / or personal crisis.

Appendix 2 – Roles and responsibilities of the single point of contact (DSL)

The Designated Safeguarding Lead is responsible for:

  • Ensuring that staff of the college are aware of them as the Designated Safeguarding Lead in relation to protecting students from radicalisation and involvement in terrorism.
  • Maintaining and applying a good understanding of the relevant guidance in relation to preventing students from becoming involved in terrorism and protecting them from radicalisation by those who support terrorism, or forms of extremism which lead to terrorism.
  • Raising awareness about the role and responsibilities of Results Consortium in relation to protecting students from radicalisation and involvement in terrorism.
  • Raising awareness within the college about the safeguarding processes relating to protecting students from radicalisation and involvement in terrorism.
  • Acting as the first point of contact within the college for case discussions relating to students who may be at risk of radicalisation or involved in terrorism.
  • Sharing any relevant additional information in a timely manner.